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CASPIAN SEA ii. DIPLOMATIC HISTORY IN MODERN TIMES

CASPIAN SEA ii. DIPLOMATIC HISTORY IN MODERN TIMES History

CASPIAN SEA ii. DIPLOMATIC HISTORY IN MODERN TIMES

A new area of sub-systemic studies in international relations, which encompasses the Caspian basin and its immediate surroundings, emerged in the post-Soviet Union era.

CASPIAN SEA

ii. Diplomatic History in Modern Times.

A new area of sub-systemic studies in international relations, which encompasses the Caspian basin and its immediate surroundings, emerged in the post-Soviet Union era, with its own prior long standing and complex regional history of competition and conciliation heretofore told predominantly in the context of southern Russian/Soviet Union and northern Persian relations.

Until the middle of the 16th century, the Caspian Sea as a waterway, had served the limited interests of its immediate coastal communities. With the Russian conquest of the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan by the 1560s, the Caspian became for Moscow a geopolitical extension of the Volga River system. This meant an increase in Russo-Persian trade (Ferrier, p. 429; Kazemzadeh, p. 314), and, much to the delight of European traders, particularly the English, this also meant that the trade from Persia and Central Asia could reach the European heartland by way of the Danube, rather than the Ottoman or trans-oceanic routes.

In the second half of the 16th century, the security of the primary sea-lanes of communication in the Astrakhan-Darband-Estrābād/Astarābād triangle rested on the good order of the coasts and ports belonging to the Caspian’s two sovereignties, the Romanovs of Russia and the Safavids of Persia. The beginnings of the Russian authority in the northern part of the Caspian proved tentative, as Astrakhan itself, which had been captured by Russia in 1554, was sacked in 1569, and a year later Moscow itself was burned at the hands of the Tatars allied with the Ottoman Turks, who wished to divert the Astrakhan trade to Crimea (Ferrier, pp. 429, 435-36).

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CASPIAN SEA ii. DIPLOMATIC HISTORY IN MODERN TIMES CASPIAN SEA DIPLOMATIC HISTORY MODERN TIMES the caspian sea map of caspian sea caspian sea lake caspian sea river caspian sea monster caspian sea oil caspian sea iran caspian sea countries caspian sea iran Caspian Sea fish Photo of the Caspian Sea Caspian Sea map Caspian Sea Caspian Sea depth Caspian Sea sturgeon of the Caspian Sea Khezer_Shahr Caspian Sea Caspian oil seport of Amirabad seport of Port Anzali Mazandaran Gilan, Golestan Babolsar Tourist North Country Dodangeh Chahardangeh the Khazars the people of the Khazars Caspian people Sea of Qazvin Khazarabad Caspian sea coast Caspian Sea legal norms Caspian environment pollution of the Caspian Sea Caspian oil gas of the Caspian Sea Caspian Sea issues the legal system of the Caspian Sea Iran's share in Caspian legal aspects of the Caspian Sea environment of the Caspian Sea the importance and status of the Caspian Sea Caspian to the Persian Gulf connection National Institute of Oceanography features of the Caspian Sea Caspian Shipping Company Caspian Sea level Iran Russia Kazakhstan Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan fishing in the Caspian Sea Caspian Sea weather transport in the Caspian Sea Caspian Sea News marine transportation in the Caspian Sea region the Iranian islands in the Caspian Sea the scaffolding factory and shipyard Caspian ecological Institute of Caspian Sea Caspian Sea Shells in nitrate and phosphate important rivers of Caspian Sea Caspian sea basin mammal of Caspian Sea Caspian oil Company Caspian Sea water transfer babol Amol northern tourist areas the forests of the north spectacular Photos of Mazandaran Mazandaran forests gilan forests images of Mazandaran forests Falls river forest Institute for Caspian Sea Caspian Sea level fluctuations Black gold caviar stellate sturgeon Hotels tourism Tourist iran tourism Russia tourism Azerbaijan tourism Caspian sea people political event event lawyer export import goods export goods import environment war military political economic economy