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INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STATUS OF THE CASPİAN SEA: İSSUES OF THEORY AND PRACTICE

INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STATUS OF THE CASPİAN SEA: İSSUES OF THEORY AND PRACTICE Legal Issues

INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STATUS OF THE CASPİAN SEA: İSSUES OF THEORY AND PRACTICE

ABSTRACT
Since the collapse of the USSR, long established stability of
compromise around the Caspian has left its place to competition and
confrontation. While the USSR and Iran were the only coastal states in the
Caspian basin during the Cold War, five states came to share the control över
the Caspian Sea in the Post-Soviet period, and they were quick to declare
their rights to the particular parts of the Sea in a unilateral manner, which led
to controversies. Consequently, since 1992, there is a search for allegations,
stimuli and causes for the formation of the multilateral relations regarding the
status and usage of the Caspian Sea. However, altered geopolitical situation
has made the issue of multinational ovvnership of the Caspian Sea and its
delimitation, a matter of urgency. Ali the post-Soviet Caspian states, except
Russia, declared at once their non-recognition of the legal force of the Soviet-
Iranian contractual base (1921-1940) pertaining to the Caspian Sea. What
follovved vvas a contentious discussion on the legal status of the Caspian and
its utilization. International negotiations on the Caspian problems, especially
on determination of its international legal status, can be divided into three
stages; First stage, vvhich may be defined as the period of investigation,
acquaintance and search after reasonable solutions, covers 1991-1994. Second
stage covers 1995-1999, during vvhich nevv ideas and postures vvere generated,
range of serious multilateral meetings and conferences, discussing the
national postures tovvard the Caspian Sea and other issues, vvere held. The
tlıird, and the last stage goes back to January 2000, i.e. to the moment vvhen
the nevv leader of Russia, Vladimir Putin, rise to the povver. His arrival
precipitated development of a nevv approach by the Russian Federation
regarding the Caspian region and its problems.

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